Übersetzung im Kontext von „clutching“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Turn master switch clutching on or off. Deutsche Übersetzung von "clutch" | Der offizielle Collins Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch online. Über Deutsche Übersetzungen von Englische Wörtern. Übersetzungen für clutch im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online:to clutch at onto sth, to clutch sth/sb, to clutch sb's hand, clutch, to let the clutch out.
The output shaft in the transmission is directly driven by the rotating wheels, and each gear set is a different ratio, so in a five-speed transmission in 4th gear, you will have three lower gearsets not-engaged spinning at three different, and faster, rates 1,2 and 3 , and one gear above spinning at a slower rate than the input shaft 5th.
In order to shift down, 4th gear has to be dis-engaged, leaving no gears connected to the input first motion shaft.
This is neutral , and the input shaft and gears all need to be accelerated so the speed of the output shaft and the lower gear the operator wishes to select match speeds long enough for the dog clutch to lock them together.
When the speeds are matched, the gear will engage smoothly and no clutch is required. If the speeds are not matched, the dog teeth on the collar will "clash" or grate as they attempt to fit into the holes on the desired gear.
A modern synchromesh gearbox accomplishes this synchronization more efficiently. However, when the engine speed is significantly different from the transmission speed, the desired gear can often not be engaged even in a fully synchronized gearbox.
Double clutching, although slightly time consuming, eases gear selection when an extended delay or variance exists between engine and transmission speeds, and reduces wear on the synchronizers or baulk rings , which are brass cone clutches themselves, and wear very slightly each time they are used to equalize the transmission revs with the output revs.
A transmission can usually be pulled out of gear and into neutral without significant difficulty, and then the operator can match revs, clutch and engage gear in the same manner as previously described.
The first declutching is simply to ease taking the transmission out of gear. It is also possible to rev match and shift into a lower gear without using the clutch at all, but unless one is very skilled and practiced, this will generally take a lot of material off the synchronizers or grind gears excessively until it gets into gear with unsynchronized transmissions.
Provided one correctly matches the revs, a transmission can be shifted into gear quite easily without any clutch, but this is usually best left for emergencies only for the average automobile driver.
This is known as floating gears or float shifting , with the clutch needed only during starting and stopping. Conversely, in order to shift down, engine RPM must be increased while the gearbox is in neutral and the clutch is engaged.
This requires the driver to slow the vehicle sufficiently, shift into neutral, apply throttle to bring the RPM up to a suitable speed, and finally shift into gear.
Sometimes, truck drivers use the engine brake to help match the engine speed to the gear. The most common situation is with a loaded vehicle which has no split gears or half gears in the lower range, from gears 1—4.
In this case, it is especially difficult and sometimes impossible to get from 1 to 2, and sometimes even from 2—3 while starting on a hill. The problem is that by the time the engine speed has dropped sufficiently to enable a shift into the higher gear, the vehicle will have slowed down too much or possibly even stopped, making the shift impossible.
The engine brakes, which on some models can be set to different intensities retarding variable numbers of engine cylinders enable a shift by dropping the engine speed quickly enough to catch the higher gear before the vehicle has decelerated too much.
This technique, sometimes called "jake shifting", requires high skill and much practice shifting without the clutch, and is usually not recommended among truck drivers because mistakes can cause damage to the transmission.
Some authorities prohibit jake shifting. McQueen is shown double clutching on most shifts. Double clutching may not have actually happened that many times.
Many racing enthusiasts consider double clutching a synchronized transmission a waste of time. However the chase footage, as edited, makes it appear so.
Apart from acting, McQueen was also an avid race car and motorcycle enthusiast. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the driving technique. For example, drive straps are now commonly employed to transfer torque as well as lift the pressure plate upon disengagement of vehicle drive.
With regard to the manufacture of diaphragm springs, heat treatment is crucial. This type of clutch has several driving members interleaved or "stacked" with several driven members.
Multiplate clutches see much use in drag racing , which requires the best acceleration possible, and is notorious for the abuse the clutch is subjected to.
Thus, they can be found in motorcycles , in automatic transmissions and in some diesel locomotives with mechanical transmissions.
It is also used in some electronically controlled all-wheel drive systems as well as in some transfer cases. The benefit in the case of motorsports is that you can achieve the same total friction force with a much smaller overall diameter or conversely, a much greater friction force for the same diameter, important in cases where a vehicle is modified with greater power, yet the maximum physical size of the clutch unit is constrained by the clutch housing.
In the case of heavy equipment, which often deal with very high torque forces and drivetrain loads, a single plate clutch of the necessary strength would be too large to easily package as a component of the driveline.
Another, different theme on the multiplate clutch is the clutches used in the fastest classes of drag racing, highly specialized, purpose-built cars such as Top Fuel dragsters or Funny Cars.
These cars are so powerful that to attempt a start with a simple clutch would result in complete loss of traction. To avoid this problem, Top Fuel cars actually use a single, fixed gear ratio , and a series of clutches that are engaged one at a time, rather than in unison, progressively allowing more power to the wheels.
A single one of these clutch plates as designed can not hold more than a fraction of the power of the engine, so the driver starts with only the first clutch engaged.
This clutch is overwhelmed by the power of the engine, allowing only a fraction of the power to the wheels, much like "slipping the clutch" in a slower car, but working not requiring concentration from the driver.
As speed builds, the driver pulls a lever, which engages a second clutch, sending a bit more of the engine power to the wheels, and so on. This continues through several clutches until the car has reached a speed where the last clutch can be engaged.
With all clutches engaged, the engine is now sending all of its power to the rear wheels. This is far more predictable and repeatable than the driver manually slipping the clutch himself and then shifting through the gears, given the extreme violence of the run and the speed at which is all unfolds.
A traditional multiplate clutch would be more prone to overheating and failure, as all the plates must be subjected to heat and friction together until the clutch is fully engaged, while a Top Fuel car keeps its last clutches in "reserve" until the cars speed allows full engagement.
It is relatively easy to design the last stages to be much more powerful than the first, in order to ensure they can absorb the power of the engine even if the first clutches burn out or overheat from the extreme friction.
A wet clutch is immersed in a cooling lubricating fluid that also keeps surfaces clean and provides smoother performance and longer life. Wet clutches, however, tend to lose some energy to the liquid.
Since the surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery as with a motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil , stacking multiple clutch discs can compensate for the lower coefficient of friction and so eliminate slippage under power when fully engaged.
The Hele-Shaw clutch was a wet clutch that relied entirely on viscous effects, rather than on friction. A centrifugal clutch is used in some vehicles e.
This clutch system employs centrifugal force to automatically engage the clutch when the engine rpm rises above a threshold and to automatically disengage the clutch when the engine rpm falls low enough.
See Saxomat and Variomatic. As the name implies, a cone clutch has conical friction surfaces. As well, a given amount of actuating force creates more pressure on the mating surfaces.
The best known example of a cone clutch is a synchronizer ring in a manual transmission. The synchronizer ring is responsible for "synchronizing" the speeds of the shift hub and the gear wheel to ensure a smooth gear change.
Also known as a slip clutch or safety clutch , this device allows a rotating shaft to slip when higher than normal resistance is encountered on a machine.
An example of a safety clutch is the one mounted on the driving shaft of a large grass mower. The clutch yields if the blades hit a rock, stump, or other immobile object, thus avoiding a potentially damaging torque transfer to the engine, possibly twisting or fracturing the crankshaft.
Carefully designed clutches operate, but continue to transmit maximum permitted torque, in such tools as controlled- torque screwdrivers. Some clutches are designed not to slip; torque may only be transmitted either fully engaged or disengaged to avoid catastrophic damage.
An example of this is the dog clutch , most commonly used in non-synchromesh transmissions. There are multiple designs of vehicle clutch, but most are based on one or more friction discs pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs.
The friction material varies in composition depending on many considerations such as whether the clutch is "dry" or "wet".
Friction discs once contained asbestos, but this has been largely discontinued. Clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks and competition cars use ceramic plates that have a greatly increased friction coefficient.
However, these have a "grabby" action generally considered unsuitable for passenger cars. The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing or pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate, depending on type.
Raising the engine speed too high while engaging the clutch causes excessive clutch plate wear. Engaging the clutch abruptly when the engine is turning at high speed causes a harsh, jerky start.
This kind of start is necessary and desirable in drag racing and other competitions, where speed is more important than comfort. In a modern car with a manual transmission the clutch is operated by the left-most pedal using a hydraulic or cable connection from the pedal to the clutch mechanism.
On older cars the clutch might be operated by a mechanical linkage. Even though the clutch may physically be located very close to the pedal, such remote means of actuation are necessary to eliminate the effect of vibrations and slight engine movement, engine mountings being flexible by design.
With a rigid mechanical linkage, smooth engagement would be near-impossible because engine movement inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up. The default state of the clutch is engaged - that is the connection between engine and gearbox is always "on" unless the driver presses the pedal and disengages it.
If the engine is running with the clutch engaged and the transmission in neutral, the engine spins the input shaft of the transmission but power is not transmitted to the wheels.
The clutch is located between the engine and the gearbox, as disengaging it is usually required to change gear. Although the gearbox does not stop rotating during a gear change, there is no torque transmitted through it, thus less friction between gears and their engagement dogs.
The output shaft of the gearbox is permanently connected to the final drive , then the wheels, and so both always rotate together, at a fixed speed ratio.
With the clutch disengaged, the gearbox input shaft is free to change its speed as the internal ratio is changed.
Any resulting difference in speed between the engine and gearbox is evened out as the clutch slips slightly during re-engagement.
Some racing clutches use small multi-plate disk packs that are not part of the flywheel. Both clutch and flywheel are enclosed in a conical bellhousing , which in a rear-wheel drive car usually forms the main mounting for the gearbox.
A few cars, notably the Alfa Romeo Alfetta and 75 , Porsche , and Chevrolet Corvette since , sought a more even weight distribution between front and back [note 1] by placing the weight of the transmission at the rear of the car, combined with the rear axle to form a transaxle.
The clutch was mounted with the transaxle and so the propeller shaft rotated continuously with the engine, even when in neutral gear or declutched.
Motorcycles typically employ a wet clutch with the clutch riding in the same oil as the transmission. These clutches are usually made up of a stack of alternating friction plates and steel plates.
The friction plates have lugs on their outer diameters that lock them to a basket that is turned by the crankshaft.
The steel plates have lugs on their inner diameters that lock them to the transmission input shaft. A set of coil springs or a diaphragm spring plate force the plates together when the clutch is engaged.
On motorcycles the clutch is operated by a hand lever on the left handlebar. No pressure on the lever means that the clutch plates are engaged driving , while pulling the lever back towards the rider disengages the clutch plates through cable or hydraulic actuation, allowing the rider to shift gears or coast.
Racing motorcycles often use slipper clutches to eliminate the effects of engine braking , which, being applied only to the rear wheel, can cause instability.
Cars use clutches in places other than the drive train. For example, a belt-driven engine cooling fan may have a heat-activated clutch. The driving and driven members are separated by a silicone-based fluid and a valve controlled by a bimetallic spring.
Other clutches—such as for an air conditioning compressor—electronically engage clutches using magnetic force to couple the driving member to the driven member.
When the clutch is disengaged and the driven member is stationary. Early designs were typically dog clutches with a cam on the driven member used to disengage the dogs at the appropriate point.
Greatly simplified single-revolution clutches were developed in the 20th century, requiring much smaller operating forces and in some variations, allowing for a fixed fraction of a revolution per operation.
In addition to their use in heavy manufacturing equipment, single-revolution clutches were applied to numerous small machines.
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