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vor 4 Tagen Der FC Bayern München sucht nach Verstärkung. Kommt nun ein Talent von Manchester City? Der FCB plant offenbar ein Millionen-Angebot. Munich App für iPhone and Android. Download the official app of the City of Munich · Download the City Map in many languages (PDF) · Visit the Tourist Office. 4. Jan. Manchester City und ManUnited sind offenbar in den Poker um Lucas Auch der FC Bayern ist an einer Verpflichtung des französischen.

In , Adolf Hitler and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch , an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power.

The city again became important to the Nazis when they took power in Germany in The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau , 16 kilometres 9.

Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung "Capital of the Movement".

The city is known as the site of the culmination of the policy of appeasement by Britain and France leading up to World War II.

Munich was the base of the White Rose , a student resistance movement from June to February The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.

The city was heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II by 71 air raids over five years. After US occupation in , Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous plan, which preserved its pre-war street grid.

The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname Heimliche Hauptstadt "secret capital" in the decades after World War II.

Munich was the site of the Summer Olympics , during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian fedayeen in the Munich massacre , when gunmen from the Palestinian " Black September " group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team.

Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide — a survey ranked Munich as 4th.

Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution.

For its high quality of life and safety, the city has been nicknamed "Toytown" [15] among the English-speaking residents.

German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people". Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland.

The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills.

Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich.

The city center lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a humid continental climate. The warmest month, on average, is July.

The coolest is January. Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer.

The most precipitation occurs in June, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February. The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany.

Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps.

From only 24, inhabitants in , the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was , in , , in and , in In , , inhabitants were counted, and in over 1 million.

In July , Munich had 1. The largest foreign resident groups by As in the rest of Germany, the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership.

As of 31 December , There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city. Munich has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since This is atypical because Bavaria — and particularly southern Bavaria — has long been identified with conservative politics, with the Christian Social Union gaining absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels, and leading the Bavarian state government for all but three years since As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament , the Staatskanzlei the State Chancellery and of all state departments.

Since the administrative reform in , Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke , which themselves consist of sometimes quite distinct smaller quarters.

The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built.

Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive — the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city.

The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus , a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast Palace of Justice and a fountain. The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city.

Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche The Church of the Holy Spirit was converted to baroque style from onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt , the most popular market of Munich.

The Frauenkirche is the best known building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising.

The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture.

Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam , pioneering artists of the rococo period. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected.

All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof , a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.

Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by countless well-preserved and in parts excellently reconstructed townhouses, giving a thorough impression of the "old Munich" outside of the main tourist routes.

Anna im Lehel is the first rococo church in Bavaria. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich. Louis church , the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces.

The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture.

The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus , the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology.

After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum , which houses the state parliament. The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east.

The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim Schleissheim Palace , located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim , a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries.

The Bavaria statue before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese. St Michael in Berg am Laim might be the most remarkable church in the suburbs.

Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich St Mary in Ramersdorf.

Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps.

Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums as described below.

Munich is a densely-built city but still offers numerous public parks. The Englischer Garten , close to the city centre and covering an area of 3.

It contains a naturist nudist area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths. Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide and extremely well-kept open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach , which get crowded in summer.

In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much more quiet, idyllic and natural-seeming, at times resembling a natural preserve more than an urban public park: Multiple Biergartens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda.

Best known for the largest beergarden in town is the former royal Hirschgarten , founded in for deer, which still live there.

Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad , the largest waterpark in Munich.

Other notable clubs include Munich , who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3.

Liga along with another former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching. Munich bid to host the Winter Olympic Games , but lost to Pyeongchang. Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools [23] and eight outdoor swimming pools, [24] which are operated by the Munich City Utilities SWM communal company.

The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world.

Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum , which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum.

The city has several important art galleries , most of which can be found in the Kunstareal , including the Alte Pinakothek , the Neue Pinakothek , the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst.

The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two floors.

Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum. The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.

Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings.

Munich is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso , W.

The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra.

Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater.

In the s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones , Led Zeppelin , Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there.

In the late s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here.

Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to 10 musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz.

This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day. Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre Residenztheater , the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world.

The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world around publishing houses have offices in the city , and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz.

At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing , was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany.

Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there.

Its strikingly modern caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere.

The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: Between and , he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany".

Fear Eats the Soul. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the s.

Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry. Three weeks before Christmas, the Christkindlmarkt opens at Marienplatz and other squares in the city, selling Christmas goods.

For two weeks, the Oktoberfest attracts millions of people visiting its beer tents "Bierzelte" and fairground attractions.

The Oktoberfest was first held on 12 October in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.

The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest.

Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest occurs in September. It always finishes on the first Sunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October Tag der deutschen Einheit , i.

The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon — a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators — these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.

It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste.

It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten Starkbierzeit strong beer season , which begins on or before St.

There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least one thousand seats, with four of the most famous and popular in the Englischer Garten: Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8, seats.

There are six main breweries in Munich: Also much consumed, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are especially Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse , the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich just as the Munich breweries do.

The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe. Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane party banana , a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning 1.

Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen.

Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport.

Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and some survive only a few months, while others last many years.

From to , Munich was also home to the Union Move , one of the largest technoparades in Germany. Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Munich has more than night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits.

Some notable nightclubs are: Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in The Max Planck Society , an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich.

The following institutes are located in the Munich area:. The Fraunhofer Society , the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich.

Munich has the strongest economy of any German city [38] and the lowest unemployment rate 3. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February for the economic prospects between and in 60 German cities.

The breakdown by cities proper not metropolitan areas of Global cities listed Munich in 8th position in Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the aircraft engine manufacturer MTU Aero Engines , the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei , the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri , the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg , lighting giant Osram , as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft.

Munich has significance as a financial centre second only to Frankfurt , being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz insurance and Munich Re re-insurance.

Munich has an extensive public transport system consisting of an underground metro, trams, buses and high-speed rail. In , the transport modal share in Munich was 38 percent public transport, 25 percent car, 23 percent walking, and 15 percent bicycle.

For its urban population of 2. Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany. The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States".

The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State".

The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived "republic", has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.

Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.

Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter.

Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over U. Meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th [ citation needed ] in the world.

The unemployment rate stood at 2. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants in Population density in Bavaria was per sq.

Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany. Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language.

Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.

As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females.

Centuries-old folk music is performed. There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions.

They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive. In New York City the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany.

They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers.

Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. Bavarians are particularly proud [ citation needed ] of the traditional Reinheitsgebot , or beer purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich i.

According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: In the Reinheitsgebot made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU partly struck it down in as incompatible with the European common market.

Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region , which is situated along the Main River in Franconia. The region has produced wine Frankenwein for over 1, years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel wine bottle.

The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals Weinfeste throughout the year.

Mainly three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: In the small town Ludwigsstadt in the north, district Kronach in Upper Franconia, Thuringian dialect is spoken.

In the 20th century an increasing part of the population began to speak Standard German , mainly in the cities. Bavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal.

In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food but buy beer only from the brewery that runs the beer garden.

In the United States, particularly among German Americans , Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and several "Bavarian villages" have been founded, most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan ; Helen, Georgia ; and Leavenworth, Washington.

Since , the latter has been styled with a Bavarian theme and is home to an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.

Bavaria is home to several football clubs including FC Bayern Munich , 1. Bayern Munich is the most popular and successful football team in Germany having won a record 27 German titles.

They are followed by 1. Plassenburg Castle in Kulmbach. Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen. Veste Coburg in Coburg. Festspielhaus of Richard Wagner in Bayreuth.

Kastell Biriciana, Weissenburg close to the Limes. Castle of Neuburg an der Donau. Old Stone Bridge and Cathedral of Regensburg.

Walhalla temple in Donaustauf near Regensburg. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bavaria disambiguation.

For other uses, see Bayern disambiguation. Flag of Bavaria and Coat of arms of Bavaria. List of places in Bavaria and List of cities in Bavaria by population.

Religion in Bavaria — Religion Percent Catholics. Imperial Castle in Nuremberg. Nymphenburg Palace in Munich.

Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 31 August Unjust Seizure 1st ed.

The Early Medieval World: Early Medieval Europe, — Reordering Marriage and Society in Reformation Germany. Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution 2 ed.

One Europe, Many Nations: Flags of the World. Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 21 December Archived from the original on 25 December Retrieved 3 July Gesellschaftsstatistik by Wilhelm Winkler, p.

Archived from the original on 22 July Archived from the original on 30 April Archived from the original on 27 October Links to related articles.

Bavarian Circle — of the Holy Roman Empire. Electors of the Holy Roman Empire from to Added in the 17th century.

Added in the 19th century. States of the Confederation of the Rhine — Aschaffenburg 2 Leyen Regensburg 2. States of the German Confederation — States of the German Empire — German colonial empire Mittelafrika Mitteleuropa.

States of the Federal Republic of Germany. Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria in Germany. Retrieved from " https: Bavaria States of the Weimar Republic Boii.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. This page was last edited on 30 January , at

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When Communists took power, Lenin , who had lived in Munich some years before, sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was ended on 3 May by the Freikorps.

While the republican government had been restored, Munich became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists soon rose to prominence.

In , Adolf Hitler and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch , an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power.

The city again became important to the Nazis when they took power in Germany in The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau , 16 kilometres 9.

Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung "Capital of the Movement".

The city is known as the site of the culmination of the policy of appeasement by Britain and France leading up to World War II. Munich was the base of the White Rose , a student resistance movement from June to February The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.

The city was heavily damaged by allied bombing during World War II by 71 air raids over five years. After US occupation in , Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous plan, which preserved its pre-war street grid.

The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname Heimliche Hauptstadt "secret capital" in the decades after World War II.

Munich was the site of the Summer Olympics , during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian fedayeen in the Munich massacre , when gunmen from the Palestinian " Black September " group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team.

Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide — a survey ranked Munich as 4th.

Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution.

For its high quality of life and safety, the city has been nicknamed "Toytown" [15] among the English-speaking residents. German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people".

Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland. The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills.

Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich.

The city center lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a humid continental climate. The warmest month, on average, is July.

The coolest is January. Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer.

The most precipitation occurs in June, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February. The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany.

Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps.

From only 24, inhabitants in , the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was , in , , in and , in In , , inhabitants were counted, and in over 1 million.

In July , Munich had 1. The largest foreign resident groups by As in the rest of Germany, the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership.

As of 31 December , There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city. Munich has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since This is atypical because Bavaria — and particularly southern Bavaria — has long been identified with conservative politics, with the Christian Social Union gaining absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels, and leading the Bavarian state government for all but three years since As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament , the Staatskanzlei the State Chancellery and of all state departments.

Since the administrative reform in , Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke , which themselves consist of sometimes quite distinct smaller quarters.

The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built.

Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive — the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city.

The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus , a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast Palace of Justice and a fountain. The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city.

Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche The Church of the Holy Spirit was converted to baroque style from onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt , the most popular market of Munich.

The Frauenkirche is the best known building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising.

The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture.

Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam , pioneering artists of the rococo period. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected.

All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof , a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.

Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by countless well-preserved and in parts excellently reconstructed townhouses, giving a thorough impression of the "old Munich" outside of the main tourist routes.

Anna im Lehel is the first rococo church in Bavaria. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich. Louis church , the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces.

The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture.

The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus , the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology.

After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum , which houses the state parliament. The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east.

The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim Schleissheim Palace , located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim , a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries.

The Bavaria statue before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese.

St Michael in Berg am Laim might be the most remarkable church in the suburbs. Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich St Mary in Ramersdorf.

Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps.

Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich.

A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums as described below. Munich is a densely-built city but still offers numerous public parks.

The Englischer Garten , close to the city centre and covering an area of 3. It contains a naturist nudist area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths.

Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide and extremely well-kept open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach , which get crowded in summer.

In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much more quiet, idyllic and natural-seeming, at times resembling a natural preserve more than an urban public park: Multiple Biergartens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda.

Best known for the largest beergarden in town is the former royal Hirschgarten , founded in for deer, which still live there.

Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad , the largest waterpark in Munich.

Other notable clubs include Munich , who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3.

Liga along with another former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching. Munich bid to host the Winter Olympic Games , but lost to Pyeongchang.

Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools [23] and eight outdoor swimming pools, [24] which are operated by the Munich City Utilities SWM communal company.

The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world.

Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum , which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum.

The city has several important art galleries , most of which can be found in the Kunstareal , including the Alte Pinakothek , the Neue Pinakothek , the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst.

The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two floors.

Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum. The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.

Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings.

Munich is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso , W. The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra.

The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz.

A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater. In the s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones , Led Zeppelin , Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there.

In the late s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here.

Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to 10 musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz.

This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day. Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre Residenztheater , the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world.

The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world around publishing houses have offices in the city , and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz.

At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing , was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany. Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there.

Its strikingly modern caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere.

The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: Between and , he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany".

Fear Eats the Soul. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the s.

Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry. Three weeks before Christmas, the Christkindlmarkt opens at Marienplatz and other squares in the city, selling Christmas goods.

For two weeks, the Oktoberfest attracts millions of people visiting its beer tents "Bierzelte" and fairground attractions.

The Oktoberfest was first held on 12 October in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.

The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest.

Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest occurs in September. It always finishes on the first Sunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October Tag der deutschen Einheit , i.

The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon — a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators — these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.

It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste.

It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten Starkbierzeit strong beer season , which begins on or before St. There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least one thousand seats, with four of the most famous and popular in the Englischer Garten: Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8, seats.

There are six main breweries in Munich: Also much consumed, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are especially Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse , the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich just as the Munich breweries do.

The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe. Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane party banana , a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning 1.

Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen. Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport.

Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and some survive only a few months, while others last many years.

From to , Munich was also home to the Union Move , one of the largest technoparades in Germany. Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Munich has more than night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits.

Some notable nightclubs are: Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in The Max Planck Society , an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich.

The following institutes are located in the Munich area:. The Fraunhofer Society , the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich.

Munich has the strongest economy of any German city [38] and the lowest unemployment rate 3. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February for the economic prospects between and in 60 German cities.

The breakdown by cities proper not metropolitan areas of Global cities listed Munich in 8th position in Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the aircraft engine manufacturer MTU Aero Engines , the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei , the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri , the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg , lighting giant Osram , as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft.

Munich has significance as a financial centre second only to Frankfurt , being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz insurance and Munich Re re-insurance.

Munich has an extensive public transport system consisting of an underground metro, trams, buses and high-speed rail. Boniface , and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo.

He was defeated near Augsburg in but continued to rule until his death in He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from onwards.

He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands.

After , however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in The deposition was not entirely legitimate.

The king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, and he probably died a monk.

As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations.

With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in , Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east.

The territory of Ostarrichi was elevated to a duchy in its own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the founding of Austria.

The last, and one of the most important, of the dukes of Bavaria was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf , founder of Munich, and de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies.

They ruled for years, from to The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine Kurpfalz in German was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in , which they would subsequently hold for six centuries.

The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in , Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria were repeatedly subdivided. Four Duchies existed after the division of In with the Landshut War of Succession , the other parts of Bavaria were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital.

The country became one of the Jesuit-supported counter-reformation centres. During the early and midth century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria War of the Spanish Succession , election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger.

From onwards and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph , Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union , now by the Palatinian lines.

The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte. In return Bavaria was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the west of the Rhine and Franconia in Between and , the leading minister, Count Montgelas , followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century.

In May a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I , [16] being modernized in That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.

After the rise of Prussia to power, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria.

Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of , but the question of German unity was still alive.

Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own.

When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence, as Austria had.

As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia.

As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence.

In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Henrik Ibsen , and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity.

This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II. Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states.

To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria.

Eisner was assassinated in February , ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate.

Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second. Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party , most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany.

Franconia in the north, speaking East Franconian German ; Bavarian Swabia in the south west, speaking Swabian German ; and Altbayern so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria speaking Austro-Bavarian.

In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there.

Uniquely among German states, Bavaria has two official flags of equal status, one with a white and blue stripe, the other with white and blue lozenges.

Either may be used by civilians and government offices, who are free to choose between them. The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in , following heraldic traditions.

Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area , the border is completely open. Two major rivers flow through the state: The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg , and within the range is the highest peak in Germany: The geographic centre of the European Union is located in the north-western corner of Bavaria.

Bavaria is divided into 7 administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke singular Regierungsbezirk. The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke , but they are self-governing regional corporation, having their own parliaments.

In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria.

The second communal layer exists out of 71 rural districts called Landkreise , singular Landkreis that are comparable to counties.

The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2, regular municipalities called Gemeinden , singular Gemeinde.

In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of unincorporated areas as of 1 January , called gemeindefreie Gebiete , singular gemeindefreies Gebiet , not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel , Ammersee , which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See.

The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since and respectively. However, in the subsequent elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years.

The Greens who had surged in the polls leading up to the election have replaced the social-democratic SPD as the second biggest force in the Landtag with The SPD lost over half of its previous share compared to with a mere 9.

Also entering the new parliament will be the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany AfD with Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag English: State Parliament , elected by universal suffrage.

Until December , there was also a Senat , or Senate , whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in , this institution was abolished.

The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state.

With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government. The State Government is composed of the:. In Bavaria introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum.

This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie English: This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums.

In the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably including by introducing a turn-out quorum. Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany.

The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States".

The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State". The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived "republic", has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.

Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.

Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter.

Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over U. Meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th [ citation needed ] in the world.

The unemployment rate stood at 2. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants in Population density in Bavaria was per sq.

Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany. Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language.

Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.

As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females.

Centuries-old folk music is performed. There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e.

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